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Ecoscience: Population, resources, environment

A survey of environmental science, offering extensive information on population, resources, and energy and provides concrete strategies for dealing with the environmental crisis.

Ehrlich, P.; Ehrlich, A.; and Holdren, J. 1977. Ecoscience: Population, resources, environment. San Francisco, CA: Freeman.

Book
Year: 1977

Ecology and Human Ecology: A Comparison of Theories in the Biological and Social Sciences.

In this paper, the author investigates the relationship beween modern biological ecology and how social scientists use ecological ideas in the studies.

Richerson, P. J. 1977. Ecology and Human Ecology: A Comparison of Theories in the Biological and Social Sciences. American Ethnologist 4(1): 1-26.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/ae.1977.4.1.02a00010
Journal Article
Year: 1977

Environment, population and technology in primitive societies.

Boserup, E. 1976. Environment, population and technology in primitive societies. Population and Development Review 2(1):21-36.

Journal Article
Year: 1976

Human Population and the Global Environment: Population growth, rising per capita material consumption, and disruptive technologies have made civilization a global ecological force

In this paper, the authors argue that population size and the rate of population growth, have been and continuing to be important contributing factors to environmental deterioration.

Holdren, J., & Ehrlich, P. 1974. Human Population and the Global Environment: Population growth, rising per capita material consumption, and disruptive technologies have made civilization a global ecological force. American Scientist, 62(3), 282-292.

Journal Article
Year: 1974

Models of doom: A critique of limits to growth

A detailed critique of the "Limits to Growth" addressing assumptions, methodologies, and results. The authors believe the "Limits to Growth" approach is negative in outlook and simply "computerizes" inappropriate theories. Primarily by economists at the University of Sussex, UK. A brief response by the authors of the "Limits to Growth" is included, focusing on five major areas of disagreement: short term vs long term models, using results of a single model vs large scale considerations, stability vs dynamic characteristics of specific variables, use of "perfect" models vs "imperfect" models for policy making, and role of mankind relative to the earth. Summary from University of Arizona in Tucson.

Cole, H., Freeman, C., Hahoda, M. and Pavitt, K. 1973. Models of doom: A critique of limits to growth. New York, NY: University Books.

Book
Year: 1973

Social, Economic, Environmental, Demographic Information System (SEEDIS)

The "Social, Economic, Environmental, Demographic Information System (SEEDIS)" is a research and development project at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), U.S. Department of Labor USDOL), and others. It was initiated in 1972 by USDOL as a demonstration project to link data from multiple sources. Since that time, the project has been expanded. SEEDIS's main purpose is to provide accurate and timely information for policy formulation, implementation and management. The SEEDIS Project addresses these information needs by providing a unified framework for data management, information retrieval, statistical analysis, and graphic display of data from a collection of databases for various geographic levels and time periods, drawn from the U.S. Census Bureau, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the Department of Health and Human Services. SEEDIS contains information on Census, energy, environment, geography, health, population characteristics, and socioeconomic status. SEEDIS allows the user to produce graphical and map presentations of analyses of combinations of these data for a variety of geographic levels and scope. SEEDIS' census information relates to population size by major racial and ethnic groupings for 1970 and 1980. These data are variously available at the national, state, county, city and census tract level. SEEDIS' energy information relates to electrical generating capacity for 1960 through 1995. These data are available at the national, county, and standardized metropolitan statistical area (SMSA) level. The data system also contains 1970 residential housing data, and heating energy requirements in 1970, and biomass resources for 1976 and 2025 at the county geographic level. SEEDIS' environmental information relates to air quality measurements for criteria pollutants. The data are available for 1974 through 1976 at the census tract level. They are derived from the AIRS data system (formerly SAROAD). Assessments include total suspended particulates (TSP), sulfur and nitrogen dioxides, photochemical oxidants, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfates, and total and nonmethane hydrocarbons. For each pollutant, county estimates of pollutant concentration (at the position of the county population centroid) were calculated as the weighted geometric means of measurements from nearby stations, including stations in nearby counties. The location of the air quality monitoring stations is also available from the National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS) data system. SEEDIS' geographic information relates to the centroids of the 1970 household populations. The data are available for a variety of geographic levels. The areas, centroids, and boundaries of census tracts and counties are also included. SEEDIS' health information relates to age-, sex-, and race-specific total mortality. The data are available for geographic levels as small as counties for the years 1969 through 1984. In addition, total annual leukemia mortality is available. Cancer incidence for 1973 through 1981 from the Surveillance, Epidemiologic, and End Results (SEER) registers is included for the states that participate in the program. SEEDIS' population relates to age-, race-, and sex-specific population counts (from the 1980 Census) and estimates for the years 1950 to 1987. The data are available for varying geographic levels. Estimates are available from a variety of sources. SEEDIS' economic information relates to labor force, employment by industry, income, education, fertility. It also contains data on the Census of agriculture and many county- and state-specific data.(from project description)

Social, Economic, Environmental, Demographic Information System (SEEDIS)

Data
Year: 1972

Population Distribution and Migration.

This publication presents numerous papers from experts in the field covering the broad areas of: patterns of population distribution and development; social, environmental and policy aspects; international migration trends and prospects; and social, economic and political aspects of international migration.

United Nations. Population Distribution and Migration.

Book
Year: 1968

The tragedy of the commons

Hardin, G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162(3859): 1243-1248.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.162.3859.1243
Journal Article
Year: 1968

Human Ecology

The paper is an attempt to apply a type of analysis previously applied to the interrelations of plants and animals to the interrelations of human beings.

Park, R. E. 1936. Human Ecology. American Journal of Sociology 42(1): 1-15

Journal Article
Year: 1936

An essay on the principle of population, as it affects the future improvement of society with remarks on the speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers.

This essay by Malthus started the 'population-environment' debate. Malthus' general argument is that the "power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man." He argues that growth of population if remains unchecked, it increases geometricaly while subsistence only increases arithmeticaly, and that to keep the two powers in balance, there is a a strong and constantly operating check on population - misery and vice. According to Malthus, the 'perfectability of man and society' as proposed by other writers, is improbable and therefore the negative check is likely.

Malthus, T. 1798. An essay on the principle of population, as it affects the future improvement of society with remarks on the speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers. Printed for J. Johnson, in St. Paul's Church-Yard, London.

Online Publication
Year: 1798

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